1- No person will be credited from the deeds of another

The Quran says:

God asserts the fact that no person will be accountable for the sins of another. Equally, no person will be credited from the deeds of another. In other words, each person will be held accountable only to what he/she has done.

The human has nothing to benefit him except his own work. 53:39

Every person earns for none other than himself. 6:164

Every person is held to ransom by what he has earned. 52:21

Hadith attributed to the Prophet:

In spite of these firm assurances from God, there are hadith that quote the Prophet declaring that one can observe Hajj on behalf of others (whether they are dead or alive)! Also that one can give Zakat on behalf of a dead relative and also fast on their behalf!
These hadith cancel out the assurances in 53:39 and 6:164.

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 589:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abbas:

"Al-Fadl (his brother) was riding behind Allah's Apostle and a woman from the tribe of Khath'am came and Al-Fadl started looking at her and she started looking at him. The Prophet turned Al-Fadl's face to the other side. The woman said, "O Allah's Apostle! The obligation of Hajj enjoined by Allah on His devotees has become due on my father and he is old and weak, and he cannot sit firm on the Mount; may I perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet replied, "Yes, you may." That happened during the Hajj-al-Wadaa (of the Prophet )."

The obvious question here is: would the Prophet of God teach what is in violation to the message of the Quran?

2- God is the Only Judge

The Quran says:

As early as the very first Sura of the Quran (The Key/Opener) we read of one of God's exclusive rights. God declares that He is the Sole Judge on the Day of Judgement and that no one will have any say on that Day:

Possessor of the Day of the Religion. 1:4

The sovereignty on that Day belongs to God alone. 22:56

It is the Day when no self possesses any power to help any other self, and all matters on that Day will be decided by God alone. 82:19

If only the transgressors would witness the punishment (on the Day of Judgement) they would realise that all power belongs to God and that God's punishment is severe. 2:165

Who forgives the sins except God? 3:135

Hadith attributed to the Prophet:

In the following hadith, not only do we read that the angels exercise one of God's exclusive rights (Judgement), and that they take charge of judging a man after his death, but that the angels quarrel between themselves as to his fate!

Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Number 676:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

"The Prophet said, "Amongst the men of Bani Israel there was a man who had murdered ninety-nine persons. Then he set out asking (whether his repentance could be accepted or not). He came upon a monk and asked him if his repentance could be accepted. The monk replied in the negative and so the man killed him. He kept on asking till a man advised to go to such and such village. (So he left for it) but death overtook him on the way. While dying, he turned his chest towards that village (where he had hoped his repentance would be accepted), and so the angels of mercy and the angels of punishment quarrelled amongst themselves regarding him. Allah ordered the village (towards which he was going) to come closer to him, and ordered the village (whence he had come), to go far away, and then He ordered the angels to measure the distances between his body and the two villages. So he was found to be one span closer to the village (he was going to). So he was forgiven."

First, this hadith contradicts the fact that God is the only Judge. In this hadith, the angels judge this man and quarrel amongst themselves while doing so! The hadith ends by saying that the fate of the man was eventually decided by means of the most ridiculous method; the distance of his dead body in relation to two villages! How can the location of a person's body at death be the decider of his fate? The Quran states repeatedly that belief in God and leading a righteous life are the deciding issues for the judgement of any man on Judgement Day, and not the distance of his dead body in relation to two villages! As for the suggestion that God commanded one village to move closer to the dead man, this constitutes a grave insult to God Almighty and how God's Judgement is decreed.

In addition, the suggestion that there are some angels of mercy and others of punishment raises a whole set of violations to Quranic truth. Suffice to say that mercy is an attribute belonging to God and not to the angels who are servants executing the will of God.

3- God is the only Law Giver

The Quran says:

God is the only Law Giver:

Shall I seek other than God as a law maker? 6:114

The Quran also asserts that the only duty of any messenger is to deliver God's message:

The soul duty of the messenger is the delivery (of the message). 5:99

In confirmation of this clear message, we read in the Quran about one occasion when the Prophet prohibited something that God has made lawful, God reprimanded him for doing so:

O you Prophet, why do you prohibit what God has made lawful for you, seeking to please your wives? 66:1

Hadith attributed to the Prophet:

In spite of the Quranic assurances that God is the only law Giver, we find many hadith which claim that the Prophet prohibited one item or another such as gold and silk for men, which were never prohibited by God.

In both Bukhari and Muslim we read that the Prophet is claimed to have prohibited silk.

Muslim, Book 37 (Clothes and adornments), Hadith 25

"Do not wear silk, for those who wear it in this life shall not wear it in the Hereafter"

Amazingly enough, in another hadith we find a total contradiction to the hadith of prohibiting silk:

"The halal is that which Allah has made lawful in His Book and haram is that which He has forbidden, and that concerning which He is silent He has permitted as a favour to you"

Reported in Al-Hakim, classified as sahih (sound), and quoted by al-Bazzar, (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah).

(The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam (arb: Al halal wal haram fil Islam) by. Yusuf Al Qaradawi).

If we follow the logic of the above hadith we should recognise that since silk is not prohibited in the Quran, then it is lawful for men to wear; so why is the Prophet prohibiting men from wearing it? The answer is simple; the Prophet never prohibited silk (nor anything not prohibited by God). The only time that the Prophet made an error and prohibited something which was not prohibited by God he was reprimanded by God for doing so (see 66:1).

4- Contact Prayers (Salat)

Times of Prayer

The Quran says:

God asserts in the Quran that the prescribed Salat must be observed at specific times only:

The Salat is decreed for the believers for 'kitabban mawqutan'. 4:103

The words
"kitabban mawqutan"
mean that the Salat has been given specific times in the 'kitab' (the Book/Quran).

Hadith attributed to the Prophet:

In spite of this clear law of God, we read numerous hadith that makes it permissible for believers to observe the Salat after its prescribed time has passed. This is what is called (Salat Qada). As a result of this un-Quranic concession, the devil has tricked millions to ignore 4:103 altogether and unlawfully observe all their missed prayers collectively at night. Then they would not have to leave any work or leisure to commemorate God!

By doing so, they miss the prime issue related to observing Salat at specific times; the reader is invited to read the following Quranic words:

Men who are not distracted by trade nor sale from commemorating God and from observing the Salat and giving the Zakat. They fear a Day when the hearts and sights will be in turmoil. 24:37

These words outline clearly why we must observe the Salat at specific times and not let any business, trade, or leisure distract us from doing so. If we were to ignore the specific times set by God, due to being busy at work or leisure, then we would be totally ignoring the command in 24:37

Nevertheless, there will always be a corrupt hadith that will totally violate a specific Quranic command. With regards to the command in 4:103, we find a number of hadith that falsely say that the Prophet observed prayers outside their prescribed times.

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, Number 212:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

"Whenever the Prophet started a journey before noon, he used to delay the Zuhr prayer till the time of 'Asr and then offer them together; and if the sun declined (at noon) he used to offer the Zuhr prayer and then ride (for the journey)"

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 733:

Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

"The Prophet offered the Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers together at Jam' (i.e. Al-Muzdalifa) with a separate Iqama for each of them and did not offer any optional prayer in between them or after each of them"

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 734:

Narrated Abu Aiyub Al-Ansari:

"Allah's Apostle offered the Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers together at Al-Muzdalifa"

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 742:

Narrated Abdullah:

"I never saw the Prophet offering any prayer not at its stated time except two; he prayed the Maghrib and the 'Isha' together and he offered the morning prayer before its usual time"

Is it possible that the Prophet who was an obedient servant of God disregarded the law of God in 4:103 and observed prayers outside their times?

5- Contact Prayers (Salat)

Shortening the Prayers

The Quran says:

If you travel the land you commit no error by shortening your Salat if you fear that the disbelievers may harm you. Surely, the disbelievers are your clear enemy. 4:101

It is clear from this verse that the only concession granted by God for the believers to shorten their Salat is during war when they fear for their lives. In the verse that follows (4:102), God outlines very careful instructions as to how the believers should pray in groups, with others standing guard.

In all the Quran there are no concessions to shorten the Salat for any other reason other than danger at times of war.

Hadith attributed to the Prophet:

Muslims today shorten their prayers whenever they travel, even if travelling in the comfort of air-conditioned trains or planes!

This they do because they have disregarded God's Law of the Quran and believed corrupt 'hadith' that claim that the Prophet shortened his prayers whenever he travelled!

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, Number 186:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

"The Prophet once stayed for nineteen days and prayed shortened prayers. So when we travelled (and stayed) for nineteen days, we used to shorten the prayer but if we travelled (and stayed) for a longer period we used to offer the full prayer"

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 773:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

"The Prophet offered four Rakat of Zuhr prayer at Medina and two Rakat of 'Asr prayer at Dhul-Hulaifa. Narrated Aiyub: "A man said: Anas said, "Then he (the Prophet) passed the night there till dawn and then he offered the morning (Fajr) prayer"

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, Number 187:

Narrated Yahya bin Ishaq:

"I heard Anas saying, "We travelled with the Prophet from Medina to Mecca and offered two Rakat (for every prayer) till we returned to Medina." I said, "Did you stay for a while in Mecca?" He replied, "We stayed in Mecca for ten days"

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, Number 188:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar:

"I offered the prayer with the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar at Mina and it was of two Rakat. Uthman in the early days of his caliphate did the same, but later on he started praying the full prayer"

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 20, Number 189:

It is totally absurd to read in the hadith that the shortening of the Salat took place during Hajj, when all those at Hajj have all day long to do nothing except worship God, yet they still manage to find an excuse to shorten their Salat! The ironic thing is that after they shorten the Salat that is decreed by God, they have nothing to do, so they start to observe additional Salat which they call 'Salat Sunna' and which were never authorised by God in the Quran!

In the following hadith we read that the Prophet shortened his afternoon Salat (Asr) even before he started his Hajj:

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 773:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

"The Prophet offered four Rakat of Zuhr (Midday) prayer at Medina and two Rakat of 'Asr (Afternoon) prayer at Dhul-Hulaifa. Narrated Aiyub: "A man said: Anas said, "Then he (the Prophet) passed the night there till dawn and then he offered the morning (Fajr) prayer, and mounted his Mount and when it arrived at Al-Baida' he assumed Ihram for both 'Umra and Hajj"

6- Contact Prayers (Salat)

Prohibiting prayer at certain times!

The Quran decreed three Salat per day and they are given the names:
1- The Fajr (Dawn) Salat
2- The Wusta (Middle) Salat
3- The Isha (night) Salat.
These three Salat are prescribed specific times in the Quran. The only time the believer is prohibited from prayer is if he/she is intoxicated (4:43). There are no times of day given in the Quran when the Salat is prohibited. Salat is a contact between the believer and God Almighty. God would never prohibit any believer from this contact.

Hadith attributed to the Prophet:

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 695:

Narrated Abdullah:

"I heard the Prophet forbidding the offering of prayers at the time of sunrise and sunset"

7- Hajj (Pilgrimage)

The obligatory Hajj garments

The Quran says:

When we contemplate the wisdom of the Quran, we clearly realise that a dress code is never a requirement for any ritual or form of worship. Instead God Almighty stresses the fact that He will judge people by what is in the heart not by their appearance:

Only those who come to God with a pure heart (will be saved). 26:89

In addition, God invites us to look our best whenever we go to any masjid:

O children of Adam, take along your 'zinah' (adornments) to every masjid, and eat and drink, but do not be excessive; He does not like the excessive ones. 7:31

Since the above verse spoke of every masjid without making any exceptions, then it also includes the Masjid Al-Haram (Kaaba). Indeed God would like to see the believers dressed well and enjoying the occasion when they visit the Kaaba.

The state of 'Ihram' (abstention) during Hajj is clearly defined in the Quran. It does not include abstaining from wearing nice clothes; there is no authorisation anywhere in the Quran for a special Hajj garment.

Hadith attributed to the Prophet:

One of the traditions of Hajj that has no Quranic authorisation but can only find reference in the hadith is the men's Hajj garment. According to hadith, men should only wear seamless fabric (like towels) around their bodies, with one of the shoulders exposed. It is also stressed that nothing made of metal shall be worn to the extent that even a safety pin to tie the towels together is not permissible!

It is obvious that these rules do not come from the Quran, on the contrary they contradict the law of God which invites men and women to take their adornments to every masjid, including the Masjid Al-Haram.

Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 615:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar:

A man asked, "O Allah's messenger! What kind of clothes should a Muhrim wear?" Allah's messenger replied, "He should not wear a shirt, a turban, trousers, a headcloak or leather socks except if he can find no slippers, he then may wear leather socks after cutting off what might cover the ankles. And he should not wear clothes which are scented with saffron or Wars (kinds of Perfumes)"

Editor's note:

It is worthwhile to stop to reflect on the wisdom behind 7:31. We note that God deliberately used the word "zinah" (adornments). The word "zinah" refers to anything worn to make a person look attractive/beautiful. Considering that this is what God wishes to see from believers when they visit the Masjid Al-Haram, it can be concluded that the visit to the Masjid Al-Haram should be treated as a happy and festive occasion. What would be more apt than people going to Hajj dressed nicely, feeling happy and looking forward to being close to God, instead of going to commemorate God in a highly stressed morbid state and dressed in rags?

One can contemplate on the happy mood and nice appearance of Christians when they go to Christmas Mass. Commemorating and glorifying our Creator should always be a happy occasion worthy of decoration and beautiful appearance, not a stressful or morbid experience! Indulging in self denial is never an indication of sincerity of faith!

The usual excuse given by Muslims for wearing the Hajj garments is by claiming that these garments equate the rich with the poor. They add that the poor will not feel uncomfortable or embarrassed by their dress since all people present would look alike.

The answer to this claim is by reference to the Friday congregational prayer. There is no dress code for this Salat. The believers go to the congregational Friday prayer wearing what they like, yet no one feels uncomfortable or embarrassed by what they wear. The atmosphere in the masjid is one of worship. No person is interested in what others are wearing! If the atmosphere during Hajj is even much more of adoration to God Almighty, it does not make sense to think that it would be a problem to anyone.

Furthermore, the poor person would be better off going to Hajj in whatever clothes he already has. This will save him the financial burden and the expense of going out and buying the Hajj garments.

If 7:31 provides us with the Quranic evidence that the Hajj dress code is not Quranic, there is also a rational and logical confirmation to reject the dress code. To explain this logic it must first be stressed that God would never command the believers to perform a certain practise and then make it impossible for them to exercise it. God decreed for us to perform Hajj anytime during the four specified months (2:197). If the present dress code was a genuine requirement from God for Hajj, it would be impossible for a genuine believer to go to such places as Arafat to perform the rites of Hajj dressed in the Hajj garments anytime outside the ten day period. The corrupt authorities would not permit him to do so. They would turn him back and tell him that the time for Hajj has gone. However, if he is dressed in normal clothes, he would be allowed in the Masjid Al-Haram and also be permitted to visit the site of Arafat in plain clothes. In actual fact he would be observing his Hajj. By allowing the believers to wear normal clothes during Hajj, God has in effect made it possible for them to follow His law which permits Hajj anytime during the four months, in spite of the corruptors who restrict Hajj to a period of ten days only.

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